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The Archeo-Ethno Park in Ravna

Spindle

 

Ethnological display begins with the collection of objects related to textile handicrafts in Knjaževac area. An important place in the traditional life was occupied by female domestic production related to the manufacture of textile items, furniture and national costumes. From the processing of raw materials to the weaving, everything was done within the household. In order to process hemp and wool, women used various aids: scutcher, combs, different spindles, destaff, reels, a ‘fawn’ etc. and for weaving - horizontal loom.

 

 


Pillow case

 

Most of these objects are displayed in glass cases at the beginning of exhibition space. Basic furniture fabrics were rugs and bedspread – sheets, blankets and other. They also made other household items, various types of carpets, among others, famous Pirot kilims. They are characterized by a wealth of techniques, coloring and various ornaments - geometric, zoomorphic and herbal. In economic terms, from the anthropo-geographical point of view, Knjaževac area can be divided into mountainous (hilly) and the lowland part or into three wholes called Timok, Zaglavak and Budžak

 


 Shearing scissors

 Different altitudes and mountainous terrain provided favorable conditions for the development of livestock breeding, especially sheep breeding. The slopes of the surrounding mountains and hills were fertile ground for growing vine, fruit and field crops, while the fertile valley of the Timok river favored growing cereals and gardening. Knjaževac area was known for exporting sheep and goats, wool and leather, yellow cheese, nuts, beans, wine and coal. The people in mountain settlements mainly lived on livestock breeding, especially sheep breeding. The herds consisted of as many as a hundred sheep. Sheep were kept at field huts – shepherds’ shelters where milk was collected and processed into cheese.


Bells

Agriculture has always been basic economic activity in this area. The main cereals were rye, oats, and less common wheat and barley. Maize was widely grown, too, and fruit production was well developed. The glass cases display items which were used in the economy of Knjaževac area, such as bells, saddle, ploughshare, and plow. Viticulture has always been developed particularly in those villages where the natural conditions were favorable. Around 1880 grape phylloxera insect destroyed the domestic varieties. At the beginning of the XX century vineyards were renewed and a new technology was applied in the grape processing. Agricultural cooperative was established in 1927 and a year later the Wine Cellar was built. The items characteristic for viticulture are: wine measuring tools, wine balloon, traditional wine flask and “Džiban”. All of these objects are from the XIX and XX centuries.