esg logo

 

The Archeo-Ethno Park in Ravna

The exhibition further represents the clothes of the XIX century in Knjaževac area. National costumes ostumes in the Timok and Zaglavak area differed significantly from costumes in Budžak. Each had its own peculiarities and special development. In the Timok and Zaglavak, in the XIX century and the first decades of the XX century women's costume was characterized by combing hair in a special way with inserts of wool or hemp, head covering with tied scarves and a long embroidered shirt and the skirt over it that was worn open over the entire length and the upper woolen garments among which “zubun”, upper dress with rich embroidery was most prominent. Men's national costume was predominantly from natural brown cloth called “klašnja”. Trousers "benevreci" and "gunjče" , a thick vest with sleeves completed with the hemp shirt, woolen belt, fur hat, richly ornamented two-string knitted socks and peasant shoes. In Budžak, until the thirties of the XX century women's costume was characterized by a long linen shirt, on top of that garment a black cloth dress, sleeveless, woven with belt, on her head a white scarf called "zabratka". Men's costume was made predominantly of white cloth and decorated with black woolen braids. Over clothes cloak raincoat with a hood which, like leather boots, was carried on the entire territory of Knjaževac mainly by shepherds. In the exhibition space there are examples of national costumes in the Timok and Zaglavak from the late XIX and early XX century, namely: peasant footwear, everyday costumes, women's dress called "Litak" buckles (clasp jewelry for women's belt), men's shirts, woollen gloves, women's dress "zubun" female camisole “pamuklija”, men's shirts, women's blayer from Zubetinac, clasps from the end of XIX century, and two string knitted socks. Garments

The first note about Gurgusovac comes from XV century. Records from the XVII century describe the position of Gurgusovac on the Big/Upper and Small/Lower Timok river, the Turkish fort enclosed with a palisade, of a small town which has 46 Turkish and 120 Christian houses, two mosques, two inns, and most of the houses made of wood. The Turks conquered Gurgusovac on the 25th of September in 1436, and was freed by the Serbs and Prince Miloš who annexed it together with the other six administrative units to Serbia in 1833, making it a trading and crafts town. To the great pleasure of Gurgusovac residents, on his way back from Romania, Prince Miloš gave the order on the 17th of January, 1859. to burn down to the ground the infamous Gurgusovac tower - prison called "Serbian Bastille”. The grateful citizens gave a new name to the town – Knjaževac – the Prince’s town. According to the official act from 1866 Knjaževac was proclaimed a “varoš” – a town settlement. The process of formation of the middle class society started in the XIX century with mixing of urban population and immigrant rural population, with all the characteristics of folk culture and patriarchal family life. A civic costume consisted of a shirt, scarf, belt “Bajader”, long skirts, a short jacket - “libade”, “bareš “ a ribbon tied with branch or ring with braided pigtails. Over time, the bourgeois class accepted new materials and patterns of European fashion. Men's costume consists of the same elements, only in European style. These are white cotton shirts, pants, vest, jacket - a jacket or tuxedo and a bowler hat. The photos of Knjaževac accompany the exhibition, as well as items that were present in town houses: a tea set, a mirror frame, binoculars, toys for children. The collection of urban culture also includes costumes of the XX century, women’s ceremonial dresses and a women's set - a suit and a tergal skirt, underwear and a gown for the wedding night. City costume